Latest Science News -- ScienceDaily
Could humans ever regenerate a heart? A new study suggests the answer is 'yes'
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
A new study's findings point to potential for tweaking communication between human genes and advancing our ability to treat heart conditions and stimulate regenerative healing.
Odd properties of water and ice explained: Water exists as two different liquids
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Scientists have discovered two phases of liquid water with large differences in structure and density. The results are based on experimental studies using X-rays.
Could this strategy bring high-speed communications to the deep sea?
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
A new strategy for sending acoustic waves through water could potentially open up the world of high-speed communications to divers, marine research vessels, remote ocean monitors, deep sea robots, and submarines. By taking advantage of the dynamic rotation generated as the acoustic wave travels, also known as its orbital angular momentum, researchers were able to pack more channels onto a single frequency, effectively increasing the amount of information capable of being transmitted.
Collapse of European ice sheet caused chaos in past
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Scientists have reconstructed in detail the collapse of the Eurasian ice sheet at the end of the last ice age. The big melt wreaked havoc across the European continent, driving home the original Brexit 10,000 years ago.
New research could help humans see what nature hides
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Things are not always as they appear. New visual perception research explains the natural limits of what humans can see and how to find what nature hides.
Animals, not drought, shaped our ancestors' environment
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
The expansion of grasslands isn't solely due to drought, but more complex climate factors are at work, both for modern Africans now and ancient Africans in the Pleistocene, suggests new research.
Glycans as biomarkers for cancer?
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Glycosylated proteins are often overexpressed in tumor cells and thus could serve as tumor markers, especially those with the interesting molecule sialic acid as their sugar moiety. Scientists now report on a bioorthogonal labeling test for sialylated glycoproteins based on a glycoproteomics approach. This assay not only assesses the level of sialylated glycans in the tumor cell membranes, but also identifies up- or downregulated proteins directly in the prostate cancer tissue.
Microbe mystery solved: What happened to the Deepwater Horizon oil plume?
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 is one of the most studied spills in history, yet scientists haven't agreed on the role of microbes in eating up the oil. Now a research team has identified all of the principal oil-degrading bacteria as well as their mechanisms for chewing up the many different components that make up the released crude oil.
Computer model simulates sense of touch from the entire hand
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Neuroscientists have developed a computer model that can simulate the response of nerves in the hand to any pattern of touch stimulation on the skin. The tool reconstructs the response of more than 12,500 nerve fibers with millisecond precision, taking into account the mechanics of the skin as it presses up against and moves across objects.
Brains evolved to need exercise
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Mounting scientific evidence shows that exercise is good not only for our bodies, but for our brains. Yet, exactly why physical activity benefits the brain is not well understood. Researchers suggest that the link between exercise and the brain is a product of our evolutionary history and our past as hunter-gatherers.
Where are the new therapies for heart disease?
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Despite dramatic reductions in the death rate from cardiovascular disease, which includes heart disease and stroke, it remains the leading causes of death, and experts have expressed concern that the number of new therapies coming to market has lagged.
Early antiretroviral therapy linked with bone loss in patients with HIV
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Current HIV treatment guidelines now recommend initiating antiretroviral treatment (ART) at the time of diagnosis. However, a new study has found that such early ART causes greater bone loss compared with deferring ART.
A little place for my stuff: How big bacteria can grow depends on how much fat they can make
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Just as people endlessly calculate how to upsize or downsize, bacteria continually adjust their volume (their stuff) to fit inside their membrane (their space). But what limits their expansion? The answer will surprise you.
Air pollution casts shadow over solar energy production
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Global solar energy production is taking a major hit due to air pollution and dust. The first study of its kind shows airborne particles and their accumulation on solar cells is cutting energy output by more than 25 percent in certain parts of the world. The regions hardest hit are also those investing the most in solar energy installations -- China, India and the Arabian Peninsula.
2-D material's traits could send electronics R&D spinning in new directions
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Researchers created an atomically thin material and used X-rays to measure its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as 'spintronics.'
Rapidly mapping the 'social networks' of proteins
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Scientists improved upon a classic approach to mapping the interactions between proteins.
Insomnia medication may wake up some patients from vegetative state
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
A systematic review of zolpidem for noninsomnia neurological disorders, including movement disorders and disorders of consciousness, finds reason for additional research.
Ten million tons of fish wasted every year despite declining fish stocks
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Industrial fishing fleets dump nearly 10 million tons of good fish back into the ocean every year, according to new research.
Pulling the tablecloth out from under essential metabolism
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Most organisms share the biosynthetic pathways for making crucial nutrients because it is is dangerous to tinker with them. But now a collaborative team of scientists has caught plants in the process of altering where and how cells make an essential amino acid.
Microscope can scan tumors during surgery and examine cancer biopsies in 3-D
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
A new microscope could provide accurate real-time results during cancer-removal surgeries, potentially eliminating the 20 to 40 percent of women who have to undergo multiple lumpectomy surgeries because cancerous breast tissue is missed the first time around.
Cloning thousands of genes for massive protein libraries
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Discovering the function of a gene requires cloning a DNA sequence and expressing it. Until now, this was performed on a one-gene-at-a-time basis, causing a bottleneck. Scientists have invented a technology to clone thousands of genes simultaneously and create massive libraries of proteins from DNA samples, potentially ushering in a new era of functional genomics.
Peanut family secret for making chemical building blocks revealed
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
The peanut and its kin -- legumes -- have not one, but two ways to make the amino acid tyrosine. That might seem small, but why this plant family has a unique way to make such an important chemical building block is a mystery that extends back to the 1960s.
New tool to identify and control neurons
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
One of the big challenges in the neuroscience field is to understand how connections and communications trigger our behavior. Researchers have now developed a tool to identify and control neurons. The new technique, called Calcium and Light-Induced Gene Handling Toolkit or 'Cal-Light,' allows researchers to observe and manipulate the neural activities underlying behavior with never-before-seen specificity, hopefully allowing researchers to identify causality between neuronal activity and behavior.
Biodiversity loss from deep-sea mining will be unavoidable
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Biodiversity losses from deep-sea mining are unavoidable and possibly irrevocable, an international team of scientists, economists and lawyers argue. They say the International Seabed Authority, which is responsible for regulating undersea mining in areas outside national jurisdictions, must recognize the risk and communicate it clearly to member states and the public to spur discussions as to whether deep-seabed mining should proceed, and if so, what safeguards are needed to minimize biodiversity loss.
Vinegar: A cheap and simple way to help plants fight drought
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Researchers have discovered a new, yet simple, way to increase drought tolerance in a wide range of plants. The study reports a newly discovered biological pathway that is activated in times of drought. By working out the details of this pathway, scientists were able to induce greater tolerance for drought-like conditions simply by growing plants in vinegar.
New mechanism for bacterial division discovered in some bacteria
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Scientists show how some pathogenic bacteria -- such as the mycobacteria that cause tuberculosis -- use a previously unknown mechanism to coordinate their division. The discovery could help develop new ways to fight them.
How sex 'blindspot' could misdirect medical research
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
The sex of animals frequently has an effect in biomedical research and therefore should be considered in the study of science, report scientists. In the largest study of its kind, researchers found that the differences between male and female mice had an effect that could impact research results in more than half of their studies.
Characterizing the mouse genome reveals new gene functions and their role in human disease
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
The first results from a functional genetic catalogue of the laboratory mouse has been shared with the biomedical research community, revealing new insights into a range of rare diseases and the possibility of accelerating development of new treatments and precision medicine.
Previously unknown extinction of marine megafauna discovered
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Over two million years ago, a third of the largest marine animals like sharks, whales, sea birds and sea turtles disappeared. This previously unknown extinction event not only had a considerable impact on the earth's historical biodiversity but also on the functioning of ecosystems.
One billion suns: World's brightest laser sparks new behavior in light
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Using the brightest light ever produced on Earth, physicists have changed the way light behaves.
Peering through opaque brains with new algorithm
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
A new algorithm helps scientists record the activity of individual neurons within a volume of brain tissue.
Microplastics sloughed from synthetic fabrics in the washing machine
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Billions of pieces of plastic are floating in the oceans. Their effects are also sufficiently well-known: marine animals swallow them or get tangled up in them, which can cause them to die in agony. On the other hand, we know less about the consequences of the smallest pieces of plastic, known as microplastics. Researchers have now started to investigate how microplastics are generated and where they actually come from.
New experimental and theoretical approaches 'dive into the pool' of membranes organelles
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Engineers have developed a new way to dive into the cell's tiniest and most important components. What they found inside membraneless organelles surprised them, and could lead to better understanding of fatal diseases including cancer, Huntington's and ALS.
Premature infants at greater risk of SIDS
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Premature infants still have a greater risk compared to full-term babies of dying of SIDS and other sleep-related infant deaths despite recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics that hospital NICU's provide more safe infant sleep education to parents before they go home.
System of quadcopters that fly and drive suggest another approach to developing flying cars
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Being able to both walk and take flight is typical in nature many birds, insects, and other animals can do both. If we could program robots with similar versatility, it would open up many possibilities: Imagine machines that could fly into construction areas or disaster zones that aren't near roads and then squeeze through tight spaces on the ground to transport objects or rescue people.
Hydraulic fracturing rarely linked to felt seismic tremors
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Hydraulic fracturing and saltwater disposal has limited impact on seismic events, research indicates.
Predicting future outcomes in the natural world
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
When pesticides and intentional fires fail to eradicate an invasive plant species, declaring biological war may be the best option, say researchers.
The beach time capsule
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
And to think it was all right there in her garage. A load of boxes pulled from a biologist's home yielded a veritable treasure trove for researchers studying the impact of climate change on coastal biodiversity in California.
Taking photos of experiences boosts visual memory, impairs auditory memory
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
A quick glance at any social media platform will tell you that people love taking photos of their experiences -- whether they're lying on the beach, touring a museum, or just waiting in line at the grocery store. New research shows that choosing to take photos may actually help us remember the visual details of our encounters.
Panda love spreads to benefit the planet
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Loving pandas isn't just a feel-good activity. Recent work shows China's decades of defending panda turf have been good not just for the beloved bears, but also protects habitat for other valuable plants and animals, boosts biodiversity and fights climate change.
Significant racial disparities persist in hospital readmissions
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Despite being designed to more effectively manage care and control costs, black patients enrolled with Medicare Advantage are far more likely to be readmitted to the hospital after a surgery than those enrolled on traditional Medicare, research shows. Furthermore, significant disparities continue to exist in readmission rate between black and white Medicare patients.
Beyond bananas: 'Mind reading' technology decodes complex thoughts
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
New research builds on the pioneering use of machine learning algorithms with brain imaging technology to "mind read."
Moisture-responsive 'robots' crawl with no external power source
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Using an off-the-shelf camera flash, researchers turned an ordinary sheet of graphene oxide into a material that bends when exposed to moisture. They then used this material to make a spider-like crawler and claw robot that move in response to changing humidity without the need for any external power.
Readily available drug cocktail can help prevent sepsis shock and death
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Even in advanced medical settings, sepsis is still very dangerous and accounts for over 400,000 deaths annually in the US alone. While new drugs are in development, a group of researchers has determined that a combination of intravenous vitamin C, corticosteroids (a steroid), and thiamine (vitamin B) may be effective in preventing progressive organ dysfunction and reducing the number of deaths from severe sepsis and septic shock.
Are activity monitors fit for exercise research? Getting there, but further steps needed
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Activity monitors or fitness trackers are fun and informative gadgets to help track daily physical activity. But as a source of objective data for research on the health benefits of exercise, they're not yet fully up to speed, reports a new paper.
Rising seas could result in 2 billion refugees by 2100
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
In the year 2100, 2 billion people -- about one-fifth of the world's population -- could become climate change refugees due to rising ocean levels. Those who once lived on coastlines will face displacement and resettlement bottlenecks as they seek habitable places inland, according to new research.
Drinking makes you older at the cellular level
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
The more alcohol that people drink, the more their cells appear to age. Researchers found that alcoholic patients had shortened telomere lengths, placing them at greater risk for age-related illnesses, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and dementia..
Lack of sleep fuels harmful inflammatory response to marital stress
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
A lack of sleep doesn’t just leave you cranky and spoiling for a fight. Researchers say it also puts you at risk for stress-related inflammation.
Microbes from ships may help distinguish one port from another
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Much the way every person has a unique microbial cloud around them, ships might also carry distinct microbial signatures. The key is testing the right waters -- the bilge water from the bottoms of ships.
Identity crisis? Vapers who continue to smoke are in denial about their addiction and could struggle to kick the habit
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
People who vape as well as smoke traditional cigarettes may find it harder to quit as they don’t see themselves as smokers, according to research.
A skull with history: A fossil sheds light on the origin of the neocortex
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
According to a recent study an early relative of mammals already possessed an extraordinarily expanded brain with a neocortex-like structure.
'Solarsack' cleans water with heat from sunlight, cheaply and effectively
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Students have developed “SolarSack” for inexpensive and environmentally friendly water purification. The concept was tested in villages, refugee camps and slums in East Africa where it will be marketed.
Colon cancer: Greater surgical precision using robotic surgery
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Up until now, the removal of bowel tumors in the lesser pelvis (rectal cancers) involved a major, generally invasive operation. This operation can now be done in a much gentler way using an innovative procedure, robotic surgery. Thanks to a better three-dimensional view of the operating area and robotic instruments that allow highly accurate surgery to be performed in the anatomically constricted space of the lesser pelvis, surgical trauma and incisions for the operation can be kept to a minimum, while, at the same time, achieving excellent surgical results.
Shining light on brain cells that coordinate movement
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
A technique for inserting a gene into specific cell types in the adult brain can be used to alter the function of brain circuits and change behaviors in an animal model. The method will allow scientists to better understand what roles certain cell types play in the brain's complex circuitry. Researchers hope the approach might someday lead to developing treatments for conditions like epilepsy that might be curable by activating a small group of cells.
Cancer hijacks natural cell process to survive
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Cancer tumors manipulate a natural cell process to promote their survival suggesting that controlling this mechanism could stop progress of the disease, according to new research.
Eating more vegetable protein may protect against early menopause
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Long-term, high intake of vegetable protein from such foods as whole grains, soy and tofu, may protect women from early menopause and could prolong reproductive function, results of a new study from epidemiologists suggest.
Physician heal thyself: Simple coping strategies for pervasive physician burnout
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
The proverb, 'physician heal thyself,' is probably more relevant today than it was in biblical times with the fast pace of life, the impact of multitasking and the unending bombardment of information, which have made emotional exhaustion almost certain. And this is especially true for obstetricians and gynecologists who experience professional burnout rates between 40 to 75 percent.
Scientists find clever way to help you de-clutter your home
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
If your attic is full of stuff you no longer use but can't bear to give away, a new study may offer you a simple solution. Researchers found that people were more willing to give away unneeded goods that still had sentimental value if they were encouraged to take a photo of these items first, or find another way to preserve the memories.
Greater muscle strength, better cognitive function for older people
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Greater muscle strength is associated with better cognitive function in ageing men and women, according to a new study. The association of extensively measured upper and lower body muscle strength with cognitive function was observed, but handgrip strength was not associated with cognitive function.
Regular brisk walks and a daily longer one help lower office workers' blood lipids
June 26th, 2017, 06:14 AM
Taking 2-minute brisk walks every 30 minutes and a half-hour walk each day reduces blood lipid levels when measured in response to a meal consumed around 24 hours after starting the activity, research shows for the first time.