Latest Science News -- ScienceDaily
Cassini spacecraft dives between Saturn and its rings
April 27th, 2017, 08:34 AM
NASA's Cassini spacecraft is back in contact with Earth after its successful first-ever dive through the narrow gap between the planet Saturn and its rings on April 26, 2017.
Virtual humans help aspiring doctors learn empathy
April 27th, 2017, 08:34 AM
Delivering bad news in a caring way -- and coping with a patient's reaction -- is a key skill for doctors. Intuitive technology is helping medical students learn the best approaches.
New consensus published on preventing, treating sport-related concussions
April 27th, 2017, 08:34 AM
An international consensus on recognizing and treating concussion in sport has been revealed by researchers. This consensus statement updates the assessment tools in light of the new evidence.
Diagnosed autism linked to maternal grandmother's smoking in pregnancy
April 27th, 2017, 08:34 AM
Scientists have looked at all 14,500 participants in Children of the 90s and found that if a girl's maternal grandmother smoked during pregnancy, the girl is 67 percent more likely to display certain traits linked to autism, such as poor social communication skills and repetitive behaviors.
Exercise and vitamin D better together for heart health
April 27th, 2017, 08:34 AM
Researchers report that an analysis of survey responses and health records of more than 10,000 American adults for nearly 20 years suggests a 'synergistic' link between exercise and good vitamin D levels in reducing the risk of heart attacks and strokes.
Ocean warming to cancel increased CO2-driven productivity
April 27th, 2017, 08:34 AM
Researchers have constructed a marine food web to show how climate change could affect our future fish supplies and marine biodiversity.
Control of molecular motion by metal-plated 3-D printed plastic pieces
April 27th, 2017, 08:34 AM
Scientists have combined 3-D-printing with electroplating to easily produce high-quality metal electrodes that can be used as a molecular beam-splitter.
New opportunities found to overcome cancer treatment resistance
April 27th, 2017, 08:34 AM
A collaborative team of researchers has proven the theory that, while resistance to targeted treatment in cancer is truly a moving target, there are opportunities to overcome the resistance that develops.
Engineers investigate a simple, no-bake recipe to make bricks from Martian soil
April 27th, 2017, 08:34 AM
Explorers planning to settle on Mars might be able to turn the planet's soil into bricks without needing to use an oven or additional ingredients. Instead, they would need to apply pressure to compact the soil--the equivalent of a blow from a hammer.
Discovery in northern lakes may be key to understanding early life on Earth
April 27th, 2017, 08:34 AM
Many Canadian lakes can provide new insights into ancient oceans, a team of researchers has discovered, and these findings could advance research about greenhouse gas emissions, harmful algal blooms, and early life forms.
Using math to investigate possibility of time travel
April 27th, 2017, 08:34 AM
After some serious number crunching, a researcher says that he has come up with a mathematical model for a viable time machine.
Mother's family history could pose risk for preterm birth
April 27th, 2017, 08:34 AM
The results of the study show that the medical history of a pregnant woman's mother and aunts should also be taken into account when considering the risk of pregnancy complications such as premature birth.
Could Parkinson's disease start in the gut?
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
Parkinson's disease may start in the gut and spread to the brain via the vagus nerve, according to a study. The vagus nerve extends from the brainstem to the abdomen and controls unconscious body processes like heart rate and food digestion.
Engineers shine light on deadly landslide
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
Late in the morning of March 22, 2014, a huge chunk of land cut loose and roared down a hillside in the Stillaguamish River Valley just east of Oso, Washington, about 60 miles northeast of Seattle. In a matter of minutes, 43 people lost their lives as a wall of mud, sand, clay, water. A new report details the factors leading to the disaster, the hazards that accompany landslides and steps that can be taken to mitigate landslide consequences and risk in the Pacific Northwest, with the aim of preventing future tragedies.
Want to better comply with dietary guidelines, and save money? Cook dinner at home
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
The best culinary paths to better health are not always paved with cash, new research shows, and cooking at home can provide the best bang-for-the-buck nutritionally as well as financially.
Readmission penalties don't correlate to heart attack outcomes
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
A program that penalizes hospitals for high early readmission rates of heart attack patients may be unfairly penalizing hospitals that serve a large proportion of African-Americans and those with more severe illness, a study suggests.
Wasps and wine: Paper wasps contribute to sour rot disease, a scourge of wine industry
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
New research shows that the invasive European paper wasp, Polistes dominulus, plays a role in facilitating sour rot disease in the absence of other insects.
A chicken-egg question: Where do baby genes come from?
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
New genes are more likely to emerge full-fledged from a genome's 'junk' DNA than many scientists would have expected, according to new research by evolutionary biologists.
Animal testing essential to medical progress but protocols could be improved
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
The use of animals in biomedical research has long been the focus of campaigns by animal rights activists. Two leading scientists give their expert view of the importance of animal testing to medical progress and present ways it could be further improved to yield more useful clinical results.
System can 3-D print an entire building
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
Researchers have developed a system that can 3-D print the basic structure of an entire building.
Energy drinks linked to more heart, blood pressure changes than caffeinated drinks alone
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
Two hours after drinking 32 ounces of a commercially available energy drink, the heart's electrical activity was abnormal compared to drinking a caffeine-matched control drink. Both caffeine and energy drinks raised systolic blood pressure initially but blood pressure normalized faster after caffeine.
Tsunami formation: Study challenges long-held theory
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
A new study is challenging a long-held theory that tsunamis form and acquire their energy mostly from vertical movement of the seafloor.
Youth binge drinking, cardiovascular disease possibly linked
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
A new study is underway to determine whether binge drinking is related to cardiovascular disease in young adults who are not predisposed to the condition.
Where scientist meets machine: A fresh approach to experimental design at SLAC x-ray laser
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
Big leaps in technology require big leaps in design ­– entirely new approaches that can take full advantage of everything the technology has to offer. That’s the thinking behind a new initiative at the Department of Energy’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory.
Video captures bubble-blowing battery in action
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
Researchers have created a unique video that shows oxygen bubbles inflating and later deflating inside a tiny lithium-air battery. The knowledge gained from the video could help make lithium-air batteries that are more compact, stable and can hold onto a charge longer.
Barley genome sequenced
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
Looking for a better beer or single malt Scotch whiskey? A team of researchers may have you covered. They are among a group of 77 scientists worldwide who have sequenced the complete genome of barley, a key ingredient in beer and single malt Scotch.
Stabilizing molecule could pave way for lithium-air fuel cell
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
Lithium-oxygen fuel cells boast energy density levels comparable to fossil fuels and are thus seen as a promising candidate for future transportation-related energy needs. Several roadblocks stand in the way of realizing that vision. An engineering lab has focused on one of those roadblocks -- the loss of battery power, also known as capacity fade.
Move over, Superman! New method sees through concrete to detect early-stage corrosion
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
A noninvasive 'spectral fingerprint' technique using terahertz waves has been developed that reveals the corrosion of concrete-encased steel before it can cause any significant degradation of the structure it supports.
Genes that help trout find their way home
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
In the spring when water temperatures start to rise, rainbow trout that have spent several years at sea traveling hundreds of miles from home manage, without maps or GPS, to find their way back to the rivers and streams where they were born for spawning. Researchers have identified genes that enable the fish to perform this extraordinary homing feat with help from Earth's magnetic field.
Headless dinosaur reunited with its skull, one century later
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
Researchers have matched the headless skeleton to a Corythosaurus skull from the university's Paleontology Museum that had been collected in 1920 by George Sternberg to the headless dinosaur.
Changes that lightning inspires in rock quantified
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
New research has identified the minimum temperature of a bolt of lightning as it strikes rock. The study discovered that, based on the crystalline material in the sample, the minimum temperature at which the fulgurite formed was roughly 1,700 degrees Celsius.
Mastodon discovery shakes up understanding of early humans in the New World
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
An Ice Age site in San Diego, Calif., preserves 130,000-year-old bones and teeth of a mastodon that show evidence of modification by early humans. Analysis of these finds dramatically revises the timeline for when humans first reached North America, according to new research.
Illuminating the secret of glow-in-the-dark mushrooms
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
Scientists now understand what makes bioluminescent mushrooms glow, which may pave the way to new possibilities for harnessing fungal bioluminescence in analytical and imaging technologies. Bioluminescence is a highly conserved phenomenon that exists in a wide range of organisms; there are roughly 80 different known species of bioluminescent fungi alone scattered across the globe.
Smartphone-controlled cells help keep diabetes in check
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
Cells engineered to produce insulin under the command of a smartphone helped keep blood sugar levels within normal limits in diabetic mice, a new study reports.
Simple treatment for severe bleeding could save lives of mothers around the world
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
An inexpensive and widely available drug could save the lives of one in three mothers who would otherwise bleed to death after childbirth, according to a major study. The global trial of 20,000 women found that death due to bleeding was reduced by 31 percent if the treatment was given within three hours.
Newly prescribed sleeping pills increase risk of hip fracture
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
Older people newly prescribed sleeping pills like benzodiazepines and 'Z-drugs' have over double the odds of a hip fracture in the first two weeks compared with non-users, according to a new study.
Possible new tool for first responders: An ice bag to the face
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
Cardiovascular decompensation is a significant risk after blood loss, even once the person is no longer actively bleeding. Applying a bag of ice to a person's forehead could help prevent this life-threatening complication while patients are being transported to the hospital.
Can aromatherapy calm competition horses?
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
Although studies suggest that inhaling certain scents may reduce stress in humans, aromatherapy is relatively unexplored in veterinary medicine. But new research raises the question of whether aromatherapy may be beneficial to horses as well.
Seeing is believing: Diamond quantum sensor reveals current flows in next-gen materials
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
In a world-first, researchers have imaged electrons moving in graphene using a quantum probe found only in diamonds. The technique could be used to understand electron behavior and allow researchers to improve the reliability and performance of existing and emerging technologies. These images could reveal the microscopic behavior of currents in quantum computing devices, graphene and other 2-D materials, and be used to develop next generation electronics, energy storage (batteries), flexible displays and bio-chemical sensors.
Concise consent forms are effectively understood by clinical trial participants
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
Shortening consent documents makes no significant difference to how well potential research participants understand a clinical study, according to a study.
Early evidence of Middle Stone Age projectiles found in South Africa's Sibudu Cave
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
Innovations in stone knapping technology during the South African Middle Stone Age enabled the creation of early projectile weapons, according to a study.
Limited gene flow between two Bengal tiger populations in the western Himalayan foothills
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
The flow of genes between Bengal tigers in two reserves of the Terai Arc Landscape in western Himalayan foothills is too low, according to a study.
Media portrayal of public shooters can perpetuate stereotypes
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
Media portrayals of public shooters vary based on the race of the shooter, regardless of the circumstances of the shooting, new research confirms.
New theoretical approach to describing non-equilibrium phase transitions
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
Two physicists have offered a way to mathematically describe a particular physics phenomenon called a phase transition in a system out of equilibrium. Such phenomena are central in physics, and understanding how they occur has been a long-held and vexing goal; their behavior and related effects are key to unlocking possibilities for new electronics and other next-generation technologies.
Bare bones: Making bones transparent
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
A new bone clearing technique is a breakthrough for testing osteoporosis drugs. The technique has promising applications for understanding how bones interact with the rest of the body.
Working human forebrain circuits assembled in a lab dish
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
Peering into laboratory glassware, researchers have watched stem-cell-derived nerve cells arising in a specific region of the human brain migrate into another brain region. This process recapitulates what's been believed to occur in a developing fetus, but has never previously been viewed in real time.
Light can improve perovskite solar cell performance
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
Scientists show how light affects perovskite film formation in solar cells, which is a critical factor in using them for cost-effective and energy-efficient photovoltaics.
Tracking unstable chromosomes helps predict lung cancer's return
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
Scientists have found that unstable chromosomes within lung tumors increases the risk of cancer returning after surgery, and have used this new knowledge to detect relapse long before standard testing.
New atomically layered, thin magnet discovered
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
An unexpected magnetic property in a 2-D material has been found by scientists. The new atomically thin, flat magnet could have major implications for a wide range of applications, such as nanoscale memory, spintronic devices, and magnetic sensors, they say.
Paleontologists identify new 507-million-year-old sea creature with can opener-like pincers
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
Paleontologists have uncovered a new fossil species that sheds light on the origin of mandibulates, the most abundant and diverse group of organisms on Earth, to which belong familiar animals such as flies, ants, crayfish and centipedes. Named Tokummia katalepsis by the researchers, the creature documents for the first time the anatomy of early mandibulates, a sub-group of arthropods with specialized appendages known as mandibles, used to grasp, crush and cut their food.
Fighting cancer with immunotherapy: Signaling molecule causes regression of blood vessels
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
Immunotherapy with T-cells offers great hope to people suffering from cancer. Some initial successes have already been made in treating blood cancer, but treating solid tumors remains a major challenge. The signaling molecule interferon gamma, which is produced by T-cells, plays a key role in the therapy. It cuts off the blood supply to tumors, as a new study reveals.
2-D materials can conduct electricity at almost the speed of light
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
New two-dimensional quantum materials have been created with breakthrough electrical and magnetic attributes that could make them building blocks of future quantum computers and other advanced electronics. The researchers explored the physics behind the 2-D states of novel materials and determined they could push computers to new heights of speed and power.
Vital role for mitochondrial calcium exchange in heart function
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
Scientists have long thought that calcium transport into mitochondria is a key signal linking cardiac workload, or how hard the heart pumps, with energy production. Now, in a major breakthrough, researchers show that the exit of calcium from mitochondria serves a critical role in heart function and may represent a powerful therapeutic approach to limit heart disease.
Genes need to be screened for stem cell transplants
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
As stem cell lines grow in a lab dish, they often acquire mutations in the TP53 (p53) gene, an important tumor suppressor responsible for controlling cell growth. New research findings suggest that genetic sequencing technologies should be used to screen for mutated cells in stem cell cultures, so that cultures with mutated cells can be excluded from experiments and therapies.
Global warming accounts for tripling of extreme West African Sahel storms
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
Global warming is responsible for a tripling in the frequency of extreme West African Sahel storms observed in just the last 35 years, an international team of experts has reported.
Hard rocks from Himalaya raise flood risk for millions
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
Scientists have shown how earthquakes and storms in the Himalaya can increase the impact of deadly floods in one of Earth's most densely populated areas.
Scientists propose mechanism to describe solar eruptions of all sizes
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
From long jets to massive explosions of solar material and energy, eruptions on the sun come in many shapes and sizes. Scientists now propose that a universal mechanism can explain the whole spectrum of solar eruptions.
Food photos help Instagram users with healthy eating
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
People are turning to Instagram as a place where they can log food intake and track healthy eating behaviors by posting photos of everything they eat -- and being held accountable by followers for sticking to their goals, a new study finds.
Ingesting soy protein may ease severity of inflammatory bowel disease
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
A diet supplemented with soy protein may be an effective adjunct therapy for inflammatory bowel diseases, researchers reported after completing a study that included mice and cultured human colon cells.
Cassini's first grand finale dive: Milestones
April 26th, 2017, 08:34 AM
NASA's Cassini spacecraft is set to make its first dive through the narrow gap between Saturn and its rings on April 26, 2017.