Latest Science News -- ScienceDaily
High blood pressure limits protection to vital organs and tissues in low-oxygen conditions
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
New research sheds light on the effects of high blood pressure by considering the way the body responds to a lack of oxygen.
Europe's cities face more extreme weather than previously thought
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
A landmark study of all 571 European cities shows the impact of flooding, droughts and heatwaves by 2050-2100 will exceed previous predictions.
Tracking traffic in the divided world of a nerve cell
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Axonal and dendritic proteins embedded in the membrane at either end -- called transmembrane proteins -- are built in the same cellular factory and travel on the same cellular highway. But for the cell to function property, they must be delivered to the correct domain. So how does the cell regulate that voyage?
Preventing the misdiagnosis of cellulitis
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
A new study finds early dermatology consultation for presumptive cellulitis can improve patient outcomes, reduce costs and reduce hospitalization.
Largest study of its kind finds alcohol use biggest risk factor for dementia
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Alcohol use disorders are the most important preventable risk factors for the onset of all types of dementia, especially early-onset dementia. This according to a nationwide observational study of over one million adults diagnosed with dementia in France.
Resolvin D-1 limits kidney damage after heart attacks
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
A heart attack triggers an acute inflammatory response at the damaged portion of the heart's left ventricle. If the inflammation lingers, it can lead heart failure. The inflammation can also claim another victim -- the kidneys. New research shows that a bioactive compound called resolvin D-1, injected as a therapeutic dose, is able to limit this collateral damage in the kidneys, as tested in an animal model. This suggests potential application to the clinical setting.
Scientists poised to win the race against rust disease and beyond
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
In a race to prevent and control rust disease epidemics, scientists have positioned themselves to better understand how rust fungi infect crops and evolve virulence.
Protein levels in spinal fluid correlate to posture and gait difficulty in Parkinson's
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Levels of a protein found in the brain called alpha-synuclein are significantly lower than normal in cerebrospinal fluid collected in Parkinson's disease patients suffering from postural instability and gait difficulty, a study has found.
Distant tropical storms have ripple effects on weather close to home
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Researchers report a breakthrough in making accurate predictions of weather weeks ahead. They've created an empirical model fed by careful analysis of 37 years of historical weather data. Their model centers on the relationship between two well-known global weather patterns: the Madden-Julian Oscillation and the quasi-biennial oscillation.
Climate change, evolution, and what happens when researchers are also friends
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
A new study that addresses how climate change is affecting the evolution of organisms underscores the need for evolutionary, ecosystem and climate scientists to work together to better understand eco-evolutionary feedback dynamics.
How people cope with difficult life events fuels development of wisdom, study finds
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
How a person responds to a difficult life event such as a death or divorce helps shape the development of their wisdom over time, a new study suggests.
'Brain on a chip' reveals how the brain folds
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Our brains are wrinkled like walnuts by the time we are born. Babies born without these wrinkles -- called smooth brain syndrome -- suffer from severe developmental deficiencies and their life expectancy is markedly reduced. Now researchers have developed a method for growing tiny 'brains on chips' from human cells that enabled them to track the physical and biological mechanisms underlying the wrinkling process.
Computer models allow farmers to diversify pest management methods
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
A technology developed by Brazilian researchers can help fighting highly resistant agricultural pests by analyzing the connections between the pests' patterns of dispersal in crops and different configurations in diversified intercropping systems.
Reaching new heights in laser-accelerated ion energy
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
A laser-driven ion acceleration scheme could lead to compact ion sources for established and innovative applications in science, medicine and industry.
Stable gas hydrates can trigger landslides
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Like avalanches onshore, there are different processes that cause submarine landslides. One very widespread assumption is that they are associated with dissociating gas hydrates in the seafloor. However, scientists have now found evidence that the context could be quite different.
Open data help scientists unravel Earth systems
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Understanding nature and its processes has greatly benefitted from open data. Open remotely sensed data make hard-to-reach wilderness areas more accessible -- at least from above. These advances provide new opportunities for Earth system research.
Beluga whales dive deeper, longer to find food in Arctic
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Beluga whales that spend summers feeding in the Arctic are diving deeper and longer to find food than in earlier years, when sea ice covered more of the ocean for longer periods, according to a new analysis.
MEMS chips get metalenses
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Lens technologies have advanced across all scales, from digital cameras and high bandwidth in fiber optics to the LIGO instruments. Now, a new lens technology that could be produced using standard computer-chip technology is emerging and could replace the bulky layers and complex geometries of traditional curved lenses. Researchers have developed a device that integrates mid-infrared spectrum metalenses onto MEMS.
Robo-picker grasps and packs
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
A new robotic system could lend a hand with warehouse sorting and other picking or clearing tasks.
'Demographic compensation' may not save plants facing changing climate
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
A large-scale study shows mixed results for hypothesis on how plants deal with climate change.
As climate changes, so could the genes of the Eastern tiger swallowtail butterfly
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Researchers warn climate change can not only influence the geographic distribution of a species in response to changing conditions -- it could also affect the evolutionary trajectories of interbreeding species.
Tweeting in cities lower than expected, researchers find
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Studying data from Twitter, researchers found that less people tweet per capita from larger cities than in smaller ones, indicating an unexpected trend that has implications in understanding urban pace of life.
MicroRNA could help treat cancer and asthma
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
A microRNA that regulates inflammation shows promise as a treatment for inflammatory diseases such as asthma and cancer, according to new research.
Helping in spite of risk: Ants perform risk-averse sanitary care of infectious nest mates
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Ants care for their sick nest mates in different ways, depending on their own immune status. When they themselves are susceptible to dangerous superinfections, they use a different method to care for sick colony members compared to ants that are not susceptible, thus protecting themselves from infection.
Brain liquefaction after stroke is toxic to surviving brain
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Researchers suggest liquefied brain fluid may be one cause of dementia after stroke.
Designing microbial communities to help plants battle nutritional stress
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Plants and microbes engage in a diverse array of symbiotic relationships, but identifying the specific microbes or groups of microbes that contribute to plant health is extremely difficult. Researchers have devised a general experimental scheme to identify and predict which small groups of bacterial species can help plants respond to phosphate starvation, a form of nutritional stress.
Spare parts from small parts: Novel scaffolds to grow muscle
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Australian biomedical engineers have developed a 3-D material that successfully mimics nature to transform cells into muscle.
Land use change has warmed Earth's surface
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Recent changes to vegetation cover are causing Earth's surface to heat up. Activities like cutting down evergreen forests for agricultural expansion in the tropics create energy imbalances that lead to higher local surface temperatures and contribute to global warming.
Researchers achieve 'Olympic ring' molecule breakthrough just in time for Winter Games
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
More than 7,000 miles away from the snowcapped peaks of PyeongChang, scientists in Florida have unlocked a novel strategy for synthesizing a highly versatile molecule called olympicene -- a compound of carbon and hydrogen atoms named for its familiar Olympic ring shape.
Unprecedented single-digit-nanometer magnetic tunnel junction demonstrated
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Researchers have developed ultra-small magnetic tunnel junctions with high retention properties for use in semiconductor technologies.
Reshaping drug tests
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Researchers have improved on the currently available methods for screening drugs for heart-related side effects. The method involves fabricating a tiny hole in a silicon chip over which lipid membranes, similar to those that surround cells, are encouraged to grow.
Unique chemistry found in the New Zealand glowworm
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Researchers have helped uncover how New Zealand glowworms produce their glow. The scientists have discovered that the glowworms produce their light using a chemical reaction that is different from that of all other glowing creatures like fireflies.
Higher risk of dementia for adults with congenital heart disease, study shows
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
A new study is believed to be the first to show a higher risk of dementia in adults who were born with heart disease. The study of more than 10,000 adult with congenital heart disease (CHD) in Denmark discovered a particularly increased risk for early dementia in middle-age adults.
Can you eat cells? Computer model predicts which organisms are capable of phagocytosis
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Researchers have created a computational model capable of predicting whether or not organisms have the ability to 'eat' other cells through a process known as phagocytosis. The model may be a useful tool for large-scale microbe surveys and provides valuable insight into the evolution of complex life on Earth, challenging ideas put forward in recent studies.
Noise from ships scares porpoises
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Porpoises communicate with each other using sounds. Therefore, they are highly sensitive to noise, such as ship noise. A new study shows that porpoises flee from and stop feeding when disturbed by heavy ship noise.
Antibodies protect nerve-muscle connections in a mouse model of Lou Gehrig's disease
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
A new study identifies a novel treatment strategy that preserved neuromuscular synapses in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig's disease.
Brain immune system is key to recovery from motor neuron degeneration
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Researchers engineered mice in which the damage caused by a mutant human TDP-43 protein could be reversed by one type of brain immune cell. TDP-43 is a protein that misfolds and accumulates in the motor areas of the brains of ALS patients. They found that microglia, the first and primary immune response cells in the brain and spinal cord, are essential for dealing with TDP-43-associated neuron death.
Bacteria-eaters to prevent food poisoning?
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Bacteria-killing viruses could be employed not just in health care, but also in the food industry, a new study shows. The researchers have been investigating the possibility of utilizing phages in eradicating food-borne pathogens and preventing food poisoning.
Using a laser to wirelessly charge a smartphone safely across a room
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Engineers have for the first time developed a method to safely charge a smartphone wirelessly using a laser.
Scientists find new antimalarial drug targets
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Researchers have discovered crucial new processes that allow malaria parasites to escape red blood cells and infect other cells, offering potential new treatment targets. The team are already working with pharmaceutical companies to use this knowledge to develop new antimalarial drugs -- a critical step in the battle against drug-resistant malaria.
More awareness, research needed on abuse risk of non-opioid painkiller
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Gabapentin, a nerve pain medication and anticonvulsant, increasingly is being misused, necessitating prescribers to understand its abuse potential and risk profile, according to a new study.
'Icebreaker' protein opens genome for T-cell development, researchers find
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Researchers describe the role of a transcription factor called TCF-1 in targeting the condensed chromatin and regulating the availability of genome sequences in T-cell development. The new connection between TCF-1 and chromatin will aid in developing new therapies using epigenetic drugs to alter T-cell fate in cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases.
'Click chemistry' reactions may boost cancer-fighting drug potency
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Researchers have developed a quick and easy way to simultaneously modify dozens of drugs or molecules to improve their disease-fighting properties.
How health authorities fight the spread of infectious diseases
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Public outreach campaigns can prevent the spread of devastating yet treatable diseases such as tuberculosis, malaria and gonorrhea. But ensuring these campaigns effectively reach undiagnosed patients, who may unknowingly spread the disease to others, is a major challenge for cash-strapped public health agencies. Now, a team of researchers has created an algorithm that can help policymakers reduce the overall spread of disease.
Stroke drug demonstrates safety in clinical trial
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
A preliminary Phase 2 clinical trial has demonstrated that patients with acute ischemic stroke, the most common type of stroke, can safely tolerate high doses of 3K3A-APC, a promising anti-stroke drug.
Civil engineers devise a cost-saving solution for cities
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Why fix a road today if it's slated to be ripped up for new sewers next summer?
NASA's James Webb Space Telescope to reveal secrets of the Red Planet
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Mars rovers and orbiters have found signs that Mars once hosted liquid water on its surface. Much of that water escaped over time. How much water was lost, and how does the water that’s left move from ice to atmosphere to soil? During its first year of operations, NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope will seek answers. Webb also will study mysterious methane plumes that hint at possible geological or even biological activity.
Survivors of blood or marrow transplantation are likely to experience cognitive impairment
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation recipients are at a significantly higher risk of cognitive impairment in the years post-transplantation, according to a new study. The research helps add a missing piece to a long-unsolved puzzle about post-transplant effects on recipients, specifically that vulnerable subpopulations of similar transplants can benefit from targeted interventions in the years after they receive their lifesaving treatment.
Researchers invent tiny, light-powered wires to modulate brain's electrical signals
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
A new study shows how tiny, light-powered wires could be fashioned out of silicon to manipulate electrical signaling between neurons. The research offers a new avenue to shed light on--and perhaps someday treat--brain disorders.
Brain aging may begin earlier than expected
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Physicists have devised a new method of investigating brain function, opening a new frontier in the diagnoses of neurodegenerative and aging related diseases.
Industry is leaking huge amounts of microplastics, Swedish study shows
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Millions of plastic pellets are leaking out into the environment from a manufacturing site in Stenungsund, according to a new Swedish study. Despite several international and national sets of regulatory frameworks, the leaking continues.
Being female is not a protective factor against heart disease in type 1 diabetes
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Constrictions of the coronary blood vessels is a possible consequence of type 1 diabetes, and one that can eventually lead to myocardial infarction or heart failure. Generally speaking, women are afflicted by coronary artery disease later than men, but if a woman has type 2 diabetes, the advantage is negated. A new report now shows that this also sometimes applies to type 1 diabetes.
When it comes to our brains, there's no such thing as normal
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
There's nothing wrong with being a little weird. Because we think of psychological disorders on a continuum, we may worry when our own ways of thinking and behaving don't match up with our idealized notion of health. But some variability can be healthy and even adaptive, say researchers, even though it can also complicate attempts to identify standardized markers of pathology.
How political parties influence our beliefs, and what we can do about it
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Fake news is everywhere, but why we believe it is still unclear. Psychologists suggest that valuing our identity more than our accuracy is what leads us to accept incorrect information that aligns with our political party's beliefs. This value discrepancy can explain why high-quality news sources are no longer enough--and understanding it can help us find strategies to bridge the political divide.
Low-fat or low-carb? It's a draw, study finds
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
New evidence might dismay those who have chosen sides in the low-fat versus low-carb diet debate. Cutting either carbs or fats shaves off excess weight in about the same proportion, according to the study.
Laser-ranged satellite measurement now accurately reflects Earth's tidal perturbations
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Tides on Earth have a far-reaching influence, including disturbing satellites' measurements by affecting their motion. The LAser RElativity Satellite (LARES), is the best ever relevant test particle to move in the Earth's gravitational field. In a new study, LARES proves its efficiency for high-precision probing of General Relativity and fundamental physics.
Data detectives shift suspicions in Alzheimer's from usual suspect to inside villain
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
The pursuit of the usual suspect in Alzheimer's research may be distracting from a more direct culprit in the disease, according to a study that analyzed data from 51 published experiments. P-tau looked a good bit more culpable than amyloid-beta plaque.
Sea-level legacy: 20 cm more rise by 2300 for each 5-year delay in peaking emissions
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Peaking global carbon dioxide emissions as soon as possible is crucial for limiting the risks of sea-level rise, even if global warming is limited to well below 2 degrees C. A new study analyzes for the first time the sea-level legacy until 2300 within the constraints of the Paris Agreement.
Cracking the genetic code for complex traits in cattle
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
The global 1000 Bull Genomes Consortium identified the genetic basis for accurately predicting the complex trait of height across cattle and dairy breeds by pooling large genomic datasets and phenotypes collected from 58,000 cattle. The team validated their findings using the DNA of a wild auroch, the ancient ancestor to all cattle and dairy breeds, and, in a world first, demonstrated the genes influencing height in cattle also influence the trait in humans and dogs.
Robotic crystals that walk n' roll
February 20th, 2018, 05:44 AM
Scientists have developed robotic crystals that walk slowly like an inchworm and roll 20,000 times faster than its walking speed. These autonomously moving, organic crystals have great potential as material for soft robots in the future.