Latest Science News -- ScienceDaily
Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced 'wonder' material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind, the research group has developed a cleaner and more environmentally friendly method to isolate graphene using carbon dioxide in the form of carbonic acid as the electrolyte solution.
Changing tides: Lake Michigan could best support lake trout and steelhead
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
Invasive mussels and less nutrients from tributaries have altered the Lake Michigan ecosystem, making it more conducive to the stocking of lake trout and steelhead than Chinook salmon, according to a recent US Geological Survey and Michigan State University study.
Scientists discover powerful potential pain reliever
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
Chemists have discovered a powerful pain reliever that acts on a previously unknown pain pathway. The compound is as effective at relieving neuropathic pain in injured mice as a drug widely used for pain relief called gabapentin. If they can demonstrate that it is safe, effective and nonaddictive in humans -- a process that typically takes years -- the discovery could address one of today's biggest public health challenges: the opioid abuse epidemic.
Comparing the jaws of porcupine fish reveals three new species
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
Researchers compared fossil porcupine fish jaws and tooth plates collected on expeditions to Panama, Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil with those from museum specimens and modern porcupine fish, revealing three new species.
Problems with DNA replication can cause epigenetic changes that may be inherited for several generations
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
Scientists reveal that a fault in the process that copies DNA during cell division can cause epigenetic changes that may be inherited for up-to five generations. They also identified the cause of these epigenetic changes, which is related to the loss of a molecular mechanism in charge of silencing genes. Their results will change the way we think about the impact of replication stress in cancer and during embryonic development, as well as its inter-generational inheritance.
Larvaceans provide a pathway for transporting microplastics into deep-sea food webs
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
A new article shows that filter-feeding animals called giant larvaceans can collect and consume microplastic particles, potentially carrying microplastics to the deep seafloor.
Lithium-air batteries: Mystery about proposed battery material clarified
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
A compound called lithium iodide (LiI) has been considered a leading material for lithium-air batteries, which could deliver more energy per pound compared to today's leading batteries. A new study helps explain previous, conflicting findings about the material's usefulness for this task.
Spray-on electric rainbows: Making safer electrochromic inks
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
A flick of a switch, and electrochromic films change their colors. Now they can be applied more safely and more commonly thanks to an innovative chemical process that makes them water soluble. They can be sprayed and printed, instead of being confined behind safety implements to handle volatile solvents and their toxic fumes.
Boron nitride foam soaks up carbon dioxide
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
Researchers have created a reusable hexagonal-boron nitride foam that soaks up more than three times its weight in carbon dioxide.
Superconductivity research reveals potential new state of matter
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
A potential new state of matter is being reported with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. The ability to find similarities and differences among classes of materials with phenomena such as this helps researchers establish the essential ingredients that cause novel functionalities such as superconductivity.
Smart fabric neutralizes nerve gas
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
A groundbreaking development has the potential to thwart chemical warfare agents: smart textiles with the ability to rapidly detect and neutralize nerve gas.
Mystery of how first animals appeared on Earth solved
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
Research has solved the mystery of how the first animals appeared on Earth, a pivotal moment for the planet without which humans would not exist.
Popular immunotherapy target turns out to have a surprising buddy
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
The majority of current cancer immunotherapies focus on PD-L1. This well-studied protein turns out to be controlled by a partner, CMTM6, a previously unexplored molecule that is now suddenly also a potential therapeutic target.
Scientists use magnetic fields to remotely stimulate brain -- and control body movements
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
Scientists have used magnetism to activate tiny groups of cells in the brain, inducing bodily movements that include running, rotating and losing control of the extremities -- an achievement that could lead to advances in studying and treating neurological disease.
Scientists give star treatment to lesser-known cells crucial for brain development
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
After decades of relative neglect, star-shaped brain cells called astrocytes are finally getting their due. To gather insight into a critical aspect of brain development, a team of scientists examined the maturation of astrocytes in 3-D structures grown in culture dishes to resemble human brain tissue. The study confirms the lab-grown cells develop at the same rate as those found in human brains.
Using barcodes to trace cell development
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
There are various concepts about how blood cells develop. However, they are based almost exclusively on experiments that solely reflect snapshots. Scientists now present a novel technique that captures the process in a dynamic way. Using a 'random generator,' the researchers label hematopoietic stem cells with genetic barcodes that enable them to trace which cell types arise from the stem cell.
Supermassive black holes feed on cosmic jellyfish
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
Observations of 'Jellyfish galaxies' with ESO's Very Large Telescope have revealed a previously unknown way to fuel supermassive black holes. It seems the mechanism that produces the tentacles of gas and newborn stars that give these galaxies their nickname also makes it possible for the gas to reach the central regions of the galaxies, feeding the black hole that lurks in each of them and causing it to shine brilliantly.
Modern genetic sequencing tools give clearer picture of how corals are related
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
As corals face threats from ocean warming, a new study uses the latest genetic-sequencing tools to help unravel the relationships between three similar-looking corals.
Making surgery safer by helping doctors see nerves
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
A new noninvasive approach that uses polarized light to make nerves stand out from other tissue could help surgeons avoid accidentally injuring nerves or assist them in identifying nerves in need of repair.
The nerve-guiding 'labels' that may one day help re-establish broken nervous connections
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
Working with fruit flies, scientists have identified different labels that attract and control specific nerves. In theory, the 'right' labels may re-form nervous connections if delivered to the site of injury.
Moving beyond nudges to improve health and health care policies
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
With countries around the world struggling to deliver quality health care and contain costs, a team of behavioral economists believes it's time to apply recent insights on human behavior to inform and reform health policy.
Why teens take risks: It's not a deficit in brain development
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
A popular theory in neuroscience proposes that slow development of the prefrontal cortex explains teenagers' seemingly impulsive and risky behavior. But an extensive literature review finds that much of the evidence for that theory misinterprets adolescent exploratory behavior as impulsive and that much of what appears to be impulsivity is behavior that is often guided by the desire to learn about the world.
Tough, self-healing rubber developed
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
Imagine a tire that could heal after being punctured or a rubber band that never snapped. Researchers have developed a new type of rubber that is as tough as natural rubber but can also self-heal.
Gold shines through properties of nano biosensors
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
With their remarkable electrical and optical properties, along with biocompatibility, photostability and chemical stability, gold nanoclusters are gaining a foothold in a number of research areas, particularly in biosensing and biolabeling. An international research team has now shown that the fluorescence is an intrinsic property of the gold nanoparticles themselves. The researchers used Au20, gold nanoparticles with a tetrahedral structure.
Stop thinking your wife is bad with money
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
When a husband thinks his wife spends too much money, whether it's reality or perception, financial and marriage problems follow, a new study warns.
Now and Zen: Lower prenatal stress reduces risk of behavioral issues in kids
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
Expectant mothers may want to consider adopting today's trend towards stress management, in light of new research pointing to its ability to lower the risk of problematic behavior in their offspring. Researchers found that mothers who are exposed to high levels of stress during pregnancy have kids who are more than twice as likely to have chronic symptoms of hyperactivity and conduct disorder.
Study: Playing smartphone app aids concussion recovery in teens
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
Generally, after suffering a concussion, patients are encouraged to avoid reading, watching TV and using mobile devices to help their brains heal. But new research shows that teenagers who used a mobile health app once a day in conjunction with medical care improved concussion symptoms and optimism more than with standard medical treatment alone.
Could olfactory loss point to Alzheimer's disease?
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
Simple odor identification tests may help track the progression of Alzheimer's disease before symptoms actually appear, particularly among those at risk.
Multicolor MRIs could aid disease detection
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
Researchers have developed a method that could make magnetic resonance imaging -- MRI -- multicolor. Current MRI techniques rely on a single contrast agent injected into a patient's veins to vivify images. The new method uses two at once, which could allow doctors to map multiple characteristics of a patient's internal organs in a single MRI. The strategy could serve as a research tool and even aid disease diagnosis.
Elevated testosterone causes bull market trading
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
Testosterone directly impacts financial decisions that drive prices up and destabilize markets, research has shown for the first time.
Estrogen receptor stem cells found in mammary glands
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
One of the key questions in stem cell and cancer biology is to understand the cellular hierarchy governing tissue development and maintenance and the cancer cell of origin. Researchers have now identified a novel lineage - restricted stem cell in the mammary gland. In the future, this model will be used to assess whether the clinical heterogeneity observed in breast cancers arises from their different cancer cell of origin.
Roots of schizophrenia: Excess of methionine during pregnancy?
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
An abundance of an amino acid called methionine, which is common in meat, cheese and beans, may provide new clues to the fetal brain development that can manifest in schizophrenia, pharmacology researchers report.
Starting opioid addiction treatment in the ED is cost-effective
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
The most cost-effective treatment for people with untreated opioid addiction who visit the emergency department (ED) is buprenorphine, a medication to reduce drug cravings and withdrawal, say researchers.
Soil microbes persist through National Mall facelift
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
It's not every day United States history mixes with microbes in the soil. But when the turf on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., was replaced, it offered scientists the opportunity to study changes in the soil microbiome underneath.
Combination of traditional chemotherapy, new drug kills rare cancer cells in mice
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
An experimental drug combined with the traditional chemotherapy drug cisplatin, when used in mice, destroyed a rare form of salivary gland tumor and prevented a recurrence within 300 days, a study found.
Trying to resist the urge to splurge? Ditch the smartphone
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
You are more likely to indulge in guilty pleasures when shopping online with a touchscreen versus a desktop computer, according to research.
Biophysics explains how immune cells kill bacteria
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
A new data analysis technique, moving subtrajectory analysis defines the dynamics and kinetics of key molecules in the immune response to an infection. These biophysical descriptions are expected to clarify the TCR microcluster, an essential assembly for a T cell to initiate its attack on a pathogen.
New plant discovered in Shetland
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
Scientists have discovered a new type of plant growing in Shetland -- with its evolution only having occurred in the last 200 years.
Smart electrical grids more vulnerable to cyber attacks
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
Electricity distribution systems in the USA are gradually being modernized and transposed to smart grids, which make use of two-way communication and computer processing. This is making them increasingly vulnerable to cyber attacks.
Candy cane supercapacitor could enable fast charging of mobile phones
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
Supercapacitors promise recharging of phones and other devices in seconds and minutes as opposed to hours for batteries. But current technologies are not usually flexible, have insufficient capacities, and for many their performance quickly degrades with charging cycles. Researchers have found a way to improve all three problems in one stroke.
Voter behavior influenced by hot weather
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
Hot weather can affect human behavior and has been linked to political rebellions and riots. A new study, the first to examine the influence of changes in temperature on peaceful and democratic political behavior, finds that voter behavior can change with increases in state-level temperature. For every 10C rise in temperature, voter turnout increased by 1.4 percent. In addition, when the weather was warmer, citizens chose to vote for the incumbent party.
Turning pollen into a low-cost fertilizer
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
As the world population continues to balloon, agricultural experts puzzle over how farms will produce enough food to keep up with demand. One tactic involves boosting crop yields. Toward that end, scientists have developed a method to make a low-cost, biocompatible fertilizer with carbon dots derived from rapeseed pollen. The study found that applying the carbon dots to hydroponically cultivated lettuce promoted its growth by 50 percent.
Going 'green' with plant-based resins
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
Airplanes, electronics and solar cells are all in demand, but the materials holding these items together -- epoxy thermosets -- are not environmentally friendly. Now, a group reports that they have created a plant-based thermoset that could make devices 'greener.'
Popular sungazer lizards under threat from poaching
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
The sungazer (Smaug giganteus), a dragon-like lizard species endemic to the Highveld regions of South Africa, is facing an assault on two fronts as farming and industrialization encroaches on its natural habitat -- which already consist of only a several hundred square kilometers globally -- while the illegal global pet trade is adding pressure on pushing the species into extinction.
A decade of monitoring shows the dynamics of a conserved Atlantic tropical forest
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
Characterized with high levels of biodiversity and endemism, the Atlantic Tropical Forest has been facing serious anthropogenic threats over the last several decades. Having put important ecosystem services at risk, such activities need to be closely studied as part of the forest dynamics. Thus, a Brazilian team of researchers spent a decade monitoring a semi-deciduous forest located in an ecological park in Southeast Brazil.
Chewing gum rapid test for inflammation
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
Dental implants occasionally entail complications: Six to fifteen percent of patients develop an inflammatory response in the years after receiving a dental implant. This is caused by bacteria destroying the soft tissue and the bone around the implant in the worst case.
David Attenborough gains new species namesake
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
A new species of damselfly from the Cretaceous period has been named after the iconic naturalist and TV presenter Sir David Attenborough.
An extra 71000 care home places will be needed by 2025 in England as care needs increase, study predicts
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
As life expectancy increases, so too have the number of years that older adults spend with substantial care needs, now reaching an average of 3.0 years for women and 2.4 years for men aged over 65 according to a new English analysis of care needs in 2011 compared to 1991.
Antifreeze to improve airplanes, ice cream and organ transplants
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
The design of airplane wings and storing organs for transplant could both become safer and more effective, thanks to a synthetic antifreeze which prevents the growth of ice crystals.
Modelling human psychology
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
A human being's psychological make-up depends on an array of emotional and motivational parameters, such as desire, suffering or the need for security. In addition, it includes spatial and temporal dimensions that also play a key role in rationalizing the decisions we make and planning our actions.
Brain tumor cells' adaptation to oxygen deprivation mapped
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
The most aggressive variant of brain tumor – glioblastoma – has an average survival rate of 15 months. There is therefore an urgent need for new treatment strategies for this group of patients. A research team has now identified new factors which may affect the tumor cells’ ability to resist treatment.
Predators preserve existing animal species
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
A new study increases knowledge of how boundaries and barriers are maintained between different species in the animal world. According to theory, crosses between two species, known as hybrids, may not survive encounters with natural predators to the same degree as their parents. Now, researchers show that reality confirms this theory.
Navigation and spatial memory: New brain region identified to be involved
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
Navigation in mammals including humans and rodents depends on specialized neural networks that encode the animal’s location and trajectory in the environment, serving essentially as a GPS, findings that led to the 2014 Nobel Prize in Medicine. Failure of these networks to function properly, as seen in Alzheimer’s disease and other neurological conditions, results in severe disorientation and memory deficits. Researchers have now uncovered striking neural activity patterns in a brain area called the retrosplenial cortex that may assist with spatial memory and navigation.
Mosses used to evaluate atmospheric conditions in urban areas
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
Researchers have developed a method to evaluate atmospheric conditions using mosses (bryophytes) in urban areas, a development that could facilitate broader evaluations of atmospheric environments.
The environmental injustice of beauty
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
A commentary calls for policies to protect women, especially minority women, from exposure to toxic chemicals in beauty products.
Drug-delivering micromotors treat their first bacterial infection in the stomach
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
Nanoengineers have demonstrated, for the first time, using micromotors to treat a bacterial infection in the stomach. These tiny vehicles, each about half the width of a human hair, swim rapidly throughout the stomach while neutralizing gastric acid and then release their cargo of antibiotics at the desired pH.
Depression overshadows the past as well as the present
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
Depressed people have a peculiar view of the past: rather than glorifying the 'good old days,' they project their generally bleak outlook on to past events, according to new research.
Genetic variants found to play key role in human immune system
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
It is widely recognized that people respond differently to infections. This can partially be explained by genetics, according to a new study. The findings offer novel insights into the genetic contribution to varying immune responses among individuals and its consequences on immune-mediated diseases.
What does music mean? Sign language may offer an answer
August 16th, 2017, 05:34 PM
How do we detect the meaning of music? We may gain some insights by looking at an unlikely source -- sign language -- a newly released linguistic analysis concludes.
Cassini says goodbye to a true Titan
August 15th, 2017, 05:34 PM
Mere weeks away from its dramatic, mission-ending plunge into Saturn, NASA's Cassini spacecraft has a hectic schedule, orbiting the planet every week in its Grand Finale. On a few orbits, Saturn's largest moon, Titan, has been near enough to tweak Cassini's orbit, causing the spacecraft to approach Saturn a bit closer or a bit farther away. A couple of those distant passes even pushed Cassini into the inner fringes of Saturn's rings.