Latest Science News -- ScienceDaily
How the Earth stops high-energy neutrinos in their tracks
November 22nd, 2017, 07:44 AM
For the first time, a science experiment has measured Earth's ability to absorb neutrinos -- the smaller-than-an-atom particles that zoom throughout space and through us by the trillions every second at nearly the speed of light. The experiment was achieved with the IceCube detector, an array of 5,160 basketball-sized sensors frozen deep within a cubic kilometer of very clear ice near the South Pole.
Surprising roles for muscle in tissue regeneration, study finds
November 22nd, 2017, 07:44 AM
Researchers have illuminated an important role for different subtypes of muscle cells in orchestrating the process of tissue regeneration. Notably, in the absence of these muscles, regeneration fails to proceed.
Lightning, with a chance of antimatter
November 22nd, 2017, 07:44 AM
Researchers find that lightning strikes causes photonuclear reactions in the atmosphere, creating antimatter.
Do birdsong and human speech share biological roots?
November 22nd, 2017, 07:44 AM
Do songbirds and humans have common biological hardwiring that shapes how they produce and perceive sounds? Scientists who study birdsong have been intrigued for some time by the possibility that human speech and music may be rooted in biological processes shared across a variety of animals. Now, research provides new evidence to support this idea.
New mechanisms found of cell death in neurodegenerative disorders
November 22nd, 2017, 07:44 AM
New mechanisms of cell death have now been discovered, which may be involved in debilitating neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, report scientists.
Desert ants cannot be fooled
November 22nd, 2017, 07:44 AM
Cataglyphis fortis desert ants can learn visual or olfactory cues to pinpoint their nest, but only if these cues are unique to specify the nest entrance. Scientists have discovered that the insects ignore visual landmarks or odors as nest-defining cues, if these occur not only near the nest but also along the route. Hence, ants are able to evaluate the informative value of such cues.
Plague likely a Stone Age arrival to central Europe
November 22nd, 2017, 07:44 AM
A research team has sequenced the first six European genomes of the plague-causing bacterium Yersinia pestis dating from the Late Neolithic to the Bronze Age (4,800 to 3,700 years ago). Analysis of these samples suggests that the Stone Age Plague entered Europe during the Neolithic with a large-scale migration of people from the Eurasian steppe.
How to cut your lawn for grasshoppers
November 22nd, 2017, 07:44 AM
Picture a grasshopper landing randomly on a lawn of fixed area. If it then jumps a certain distance in a random direction, what shape should the lawn be to maximize the chance that the grasshopper stays on the lawn after jumping?
New method to measure neutron star size uses modeling based on thermonuclear explosions
November 22nd, 2017, 07:44 AM
Neutron stars are made out of cold ultra-dense matter. How this matter behaves is one of the biggest mysteries in modern nuclear physics. Researchers developed a new method for measuring the radius of neutron stars which helps them to understand what happens to the matter inside the star under extreme pressure.
New composite material made of carbon nanotubes
November 22nd, 2017, 07:44 AM
Due to their unique properties, carbon nanotubes would be ideal for numerous applications, but to date they cannot be combined adequately with other materials, or they lose their beneficial properties. Scientists have developed an alternative method of combining, so they retain their characteristic properties. As such, they 'felt' the thread-like tubes into a stable 3-D network.
Genetic factors linked to acquired narrowing of the airway
November 22nd, 2017, 07:44 AM
Endotracheal intubation and tracheotomy are widely used in the hospital setting for elective surgery and in cases of serious illness or critical injury. In rare instances the procedures result in the development of scarring and narrowing of the larynx and trachea, or acquired laryngotracheal stenosis (ALTS). Who is susceptible to ALTS -- and why -- is unclear, but according to new research, genetic and ethnic background may be underlying factors.
Growing teeth and a backbone: Studies trace early origins of skeletal tissues
November 22nd, 2017, 07:44 AM
Two new studies on the evolutionary origin of teeth and of vertebra further illuminate the human connection to marine organisms that goes back millions of years. Both studies were conducted in the little skate (Leucoraja erinacea).
Health service complaints system putting patients at risk, harming doctors' mental health
November 22nd, 2017, 07:44 AM
Current process for complaints against doctors reduces their wellbeing and causes fear-driven working practices that could compromise patient care, suggests a new English study.
Health threat from mercury in freshwater fish could be blowing away in the wind
November 22nd, 2017, 07:44 AM
Mercury is one of the top 10 chemical concerns for public health according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In more than half of Swedish lakes the mercury levels are so high that eating the fish is a threat to the health of people and wildlife. To make matters worse, the problem seems to have no solution in sight. But new research gives hope: the mercury problem could very well be blowing away in the wind.
Cool lizards are better at learning socially
November 22nd, 2017, 07:44 AM
Bearded dragons which are incubated in colder environments are better at solving cognitive tasks as adults than incubated in warmer temperatures, according to new research. Scientists tested the social learning abilities of bearded dragons which had been incubated in either an average of 30°C or 27°C and found that those from the colder incubation environment picked up new skills faster than their hotter counterparts.
High-intensity exercise boosts memory, new research suggests
November 22nd, 2017, 07:44 AM
The health advantages of high-intensity exercise are widely known but new research points to another major benefit: better memory. The findings could have implications for an aging population which is grappling with the growing problem of catastrophic diseases such as dementia and Alzheimer's.
Smart people have better connected brains
November 22nd, 2017, 07:44 AM
Differences in intelligence have so far mostly been attributed to differences in specific brain regions. However, are smart people's brains also wired differently to those of less intelligent persons? A new study supports this assumption. In intelligent persons, certain brain regions are more strongly involved in the flow of information between brain regions, while other brain regions are less engaged.
Felling pines: Doing it sooner rather than later is better for fynbos
November 22nd, 2017, 07:44 AM
Here's some advice for landowners wanting to remove pine trees in the hope of seeing fynbos plants on their properties again: do so before the trees have grown there for more than 30 years. The longer they wait, the less likely the chances that any fynbos seeds will be left in the soil to sprout successfully, according to researchers.
HLF-gene controls generation of our long-term immune system
November 22nd, 2017, 07:44 AM
When the HLF (hepatic leukemia factor) gene -- which is expressed in immature blood cells -- does not shut down on time, we are unable to develop a functional long-term immune system, investigators have found. This could be a very early stage of leukemia, they say.
Common jellyfish is actually two species, scientists find
November 22nd, 2017, 07:44 AM
Sea nettle jellyfish found in Rehoboth and Chesapeake Bay are actually two species, researchers have discovered.
To forget or to remember? Memory depends on subtle brain signals
November 22nd, 2017, 07:44 AM
Understanding how brains actively erase memories may open new understanding of memory loss and aging, and open the possibility of new treatments for neurodegenerative disease.
Rainfall can indicate that mosquito-borne epidemics will occur weeks later
November 22nd, 2017, 07:44 AM
Outbreaks of mosquito-borne viruses Zika and Chikungunya generally occur about three weeks after heavy rainfall, research shows. Researchers also found that Chikungunya will predominate over Zika when both circulate at the same time.
Preliminary stages of dementia reduce human face memorization ability
November 22nd, 2017, 07:44 AM
Scientists have revealed that elderly people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have a particularly weakened ability to memorize human faces in the short term when compared to healthy elderly people. MCI patients also had a different gaze behavior when trying to memorize a face. This research may lead to the early detection of dementia.
MRI shows brain differences among ADHD patients
November 22nd, 2017, 07:44 AM
Information from brain MRIs can help identify people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and distinguish among subtypes of the condition, according to a new study.
Worldwide increase in methane bubbles due to climate change
November 22nd, 2017, 07:44 AM
Due to climate change, including rising temperatures, more and more methane is bubbling up from lakes, ponds, rivers and wetlands throughout the world. The release of methane -- a potent greenhouse gas -- leads to a further increase in temperature, thus creating a positive feedback loop (also known as a 'vicious circle').
Species may appear deceptively resilient to climate change
November 22nd, 2017, 07:44 AM
Natural habitats play a vital role in helping other plants and animals resist heat stresses ramping up with climate change -- at least until the species they depend on to form those habitats become imperiled.
Whole-brain map of electrical connections key to forming memories constructed by researchers
November 22nd, 2017, 07:44 AM
A team of neuroscientists has constructed the first whole-brain map of electrical connectivity in the brain based on data from nearly 300 neurosurgical patients with electrodes implanted directly on the brain. The researchers found that low-frequency rhythms of brain activity, when brain waves move up and down slowly, primarily drive communication between the frontal, temporal and medial temporal lobes, key brain regions that engage during memory processing.
Antibiotics resistance: Researchers succeed to block genes of resistance
November 22nd, 2017, 07:44 AM
Scientists have design better molecules that make it harder for plasmids to move between bacteria.
Brains of children with a better physical fitness possess a greater volume of gray matter
November 22nd, 2017, 07:44 AM
Physical fitness in children may affect their brain structure, which in turn may have an influence on their academic performance, new research indicates.
Schooling fish mainly react to one or two neighbors at a time
November 21st, 2017, 07:44 AM
Schooling fish constantly change who they decide to pay attention to and respond to one or two neighbors at a time, new research shows.
Video game improves balance in youth with autism
November 21st, 2017, 07:44 AM
Playing a video game that rewards participants for holding various "ninja" poses could help children and youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) improve their balance, according to a recent study.
Biomechanical model could reduce wobbling of pedestrian bridges
November 21st, 2017, 07:44 AM
The dangerous wobbling of pedestrian bridges could be reduced by using biomechanically inspired models of pedestrian response to bridge motion and a mathematical formula to estimate the critical crowd size at which bridge wobbling begins, according to a study.
Proposed cuts to US Malaria Initiative could mean millions more malaria cases
November 21st, 2017, 07:44 AM
Cutting the budget of the President's Malaria Initiative (PMI) by 44 percent, as the US Congress has proposed, would lead to an estimated 67 million additional cases of malaria over the next four years, according to a mathematical model.
Second HIV test helps prevent incorrect HIV diagnosis in infants
November 21st, 2017, 07:44 AM
Confirmatory HIV testing can substantially reduce the number of infants in South Africa who may be falsely diagnosed as HIV-infected and started on unneeded treatment, according to a new study.
Specific tumor environment found that triggers cells to metastasize
November 21st, 2017, 07:44 AM
The environment surrounding a tumor can trigger metastatic behavior in cancer cells, a team of bioengineers and bioinformaticians has discovered. Specifically, when tumor cells are confined in a dense environment, the researchers found that they turn on a specific set of genes and begin to form structures that resemble blood vessels.
Correctly used neonics do not adversely affect honeybee colonies, new research finds
November 21st, 2017, 07:44 AM
Amid mounting controversy over use of neonicotinoids and declining bee population, a new analysis of previously unpublished studies and reports commissioned by agri-chemical companies Bayer and Syngenta -- as well as published papers from the scientific literature -- shows no significant ill effects on honeybee colonies from three common insecticides made by the companies.
New tool can help job searchers better position themselves in market
November 21st, 2017, 07:44 AM
A novel method, developed by an economist has been created to evaluate a worker's skillset and determine its impact on wages.
Nano-watch has steady hands
November 21st, 2017, 07:44 AM
A new nanomechanical hand shows the time of an electronic clock, by spinning a tiny cylinder using light. A silicon nanorod, less than a thousandth of a millimetre long, can be trapped in thin air using focused laser beams, and spun to follow the ticking of a clock, losing only one-millionth of a second over four days.
How disposable diapers can improve measurements of tumor growth
November 21st, 2017, 07:44 AM
In pursuit of a better imaging phantom for improved tumor measurements, scientists hit upon an effective but unconventional solution: injecting water into disposable diapers.
Turtles and technology advance understanding of lung abnormality
November 21st, 2017, 07:44 AM
A study of an unusual snapping turtle with one lung found shared characteristics with humans born with one lung who survive beyond infancy. New digital 3-D anatomical models made the detailed research possible.
How to get sprayed metal coatings to stick
November 21st, 2017, 07:44 AM
New research reveals the best way to make metal particles stick to a surface in a spray-coating process. Surprisingly, melting hurts rather than helps.
New study points the way to therapy for rare cancer that targets the young
November 21st, 2017, 07:44 AM
Scientists have engineered a mouse model to study a rare and often-fatal form of liver cancer. They've used it to clarify what drives these tumors at the molecular level, and discover new drug concepts.
Bridging the gap: Potentially low-cost, low-emissions technology that can convert methane without forming carbon dioxide
November 21st, 2017, 07:44 AM
A potentially low-cost, low-emissions technology has been designed that can convert methane without forming carbon dioxide.
Moon's crust underwent resurfacing after forming from magma ocean
November 21st, 2017, 07:44 AM
A research team took to the lab to recreate the magmatic melt that once formed the lunar surface and uncovered new insights on how the modern moonscape came to be.
Deep learning used to reconstruct holograms, improve optical microscopy
November 21st, 2017, 07:44 AM
New uses for deep learning have been developed, report researchers, specificially reconstructing a hologram to form a microscopic image of an object and improving optical microscopy. Their new holographic imaging technique produces better images than current methods that use multiple holograms, and it's easier to implement because it requires fewer measurements and performs computations faster.
How bacteria survive in oxygen-poor environments
November 21st, 2017, 07:44 AM
Biologists have revealed a mechanism by which bacterial cells in crowded, oxygen-deprived environments access oxygen for energy production, ensuring survival of the cell. The finding could explain how some bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), are able to thrive in oxygen-poor environments like biofilms and resist antibiotics. P. aeruginosa biofilm infections are a leading cause of death for people suffering from cystic fibrosis, a genetic condition that affects the lungs and the digestive system.
Watching atoms move in hybrid perovskite crystals reveals clues to improving solar cells
November 21st, 2017, 07:44 AM
The discovery of nanoscale changes deep inside hybrid perovskites could shed light on developing low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells. Using X-ray beams and lasers, a team of researchers discovered how the movement of ions in hybrid perovskites causes certain regions within the material to become better solar cells than other parts.
Twisted sex allows mirror-image snails to mate face-to-face, research finds
November 21st, 2017, 07:44 AM
A new study has found that differently-coiled types of Japanese land snails should in fact be considered a single species, because -- against all odds -- they are sometimes able to mate, a result which has implications for the classification of other snails.
Maintaining sufficient vitamin D levels may help to prevent rheumatoid arthritis
November 21st, 2017, 07:44 AM
Maintaining sufficient vitamin D levels may help to prevent the onset of inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, research has discovered.
Underwater acoustic localization of marine mammals, vehicles
November 21st, 2017, 07:44 AM
An underwater acoustic system for the localization of marine mammals, underwater vehicles and other sound sources in the ocean, using no more than a single hydrophone (basically an underwater microphone) as a receiver.
Effects of feeding populations of the green turtle in the Canary Islands: High consumption of fat, pollutants and behaviour changes
November 21st, 2017, 07:44 AM
Feeding the animals is altering the behavior and eating habits of the green turtle in the Canary Islands (Spain), concludes new research.
Topological insulators: One glimpse is enough
November 21st, 2017, 07:44 AM
The Nobel Prize for physics in 2016 was awarded for the theory of topological matter. Topological insulators are new materials with special electronic properties and are of great fundamental and applications-oriented interest. Nevertheless, physicists have wrestled with a ten-year-old puzzle in which the results from the two best methods to probe their electronic states disagree. Researchers now know exactly why.
Unexpected atmospheric vortex behavior on Saturn's moon Titan
November 21st, 2017, 07:44 AM
Recently reported unexpected behavior on Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, is due to its unique atmospheric chemistry. Titan is the largest moon of Saturn, is bigger than the planet Mercury, and is the only moon in our solar system to have a substantial atmosphere.
Function of an enigmatic synaptic protein defined
November 21st, 2017, 07:44 AM
Communication is often mired in contradiction -- also in the brain. Neuroscientists have now resolved one such contradiction. The role of Synaptotagmin 7 has been controversial: There was a contradiction between the function it seemed to have, and the characteristics of signal transmission observed. Now, for the first time, scientists defined its functional contribution at an inhibitory GABAergic synapse: it ensures the efficiency of high-frequency inhibitory synaptic transmission.
Good cells gone bad: Scientists discover PINK-SNO[W]
November 21st, 2017, 07:44 AM
A new study is the first to show precisely how a process in nerve cells, called the S-nitrosylation (SNO) reaction, may contribute to Parkinson's disease.
New findings to help HIV scientists establish 'template' for potent antibodies
November 21st, 2017, 07:44 AM
New data further illuminate how some human beings generate powerful, HIV-blocking antibodies. These results offer important insight into a potential AIDS vaccine design.
Virtual reality allows you to look inside your body and could help improve drug delivery
November 21st, 2017, 07:44 AM
Renderings of 3-D cells in the body are traditionally displayed using 2-D media, such as on a computer screen or paper; however, the advent of Virtual Reality (VR) headsets means it is now possible to visualize and interact with scientific data in a 3-D virtual world.
Model by which plants adapt their photosynthetic metabolism to light intensity
November 21st, 2017, 07:44 AM
A new model explains the molecular mechanism used by plants to adapt their photosynthetic mechanism to light intensity.
What does it mean for the husband when his wife keeps her own surname?
November 21st, 2017, 07:44 AM
When a woman chooses not to take her husband's surname after marriage, people perceive her husband as being higher in traits related to femininity and lower in traits related to masculinity. He is also perceived as having less power in the relationship.
New database catalogues plants that soak up contamination
November 21st, 2017, 07:44 AM
Hyperaccumulators are unusual plants that can absorb much larger amounts of metal compounds in their leaves and stems than normal plants, and they are very useful for cleaning up contaminated land.